Kaye Wittig

Two Sides of the Same Coin

When Negative Means Two Things Negative Reinforcement is bad and Positive Reinforcement is good, right? Not necessarily. Sometimes scientists use words which non-scientists may find confusing. I can’t think of a better example than the whole positive/negative reinforcement/punishment quadrant that behaviorists came up with. When most people hear the word “negative” it means “bad” to them, …

Two Sides of the Same Coin Read More »


Extinction is the term for the disappearance of an association with an involuntary response or a behavior which was learned earlier. An example of extinction would be when a horse paws the ground when tied and after a few sessions of being tied with no one untying him or giving him attention, he gradually quits …

Extinction Read More »

Teaching for Long-Term Potentiation

The way we teach horses determines how well they learn. That sounds obvious, but it’s worth studying what’s known about training to improving long-term retention. One of the newest areas of study, spurred on by interest in understanding Alzheimer’s and drug addiction, is Long-Term Potentiation. In the brains of all mammals, there are three memory stages: …

Teaching for Long-Term Potentiation Read More »